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::: LT-310 :::
Experimental device for monomolecular film deposition
according to the Langmuir—Blodgett (LB) and similar techniques
LB trough
Experimental device for film deposition LT-310
with installed additional units and accessories.

LangmuirBlodgett trough LT-310 is experimental research apparatus intended for deposition of mono- and multimolecular films according to the LangmuirBlodgett (LB) and similar techniques. It is also suitable for deposition of thin layers of various nature on solid substrates. Additional units and accessories enable the monomolecular layer deposition for versatile substrate types: a winding unit realizes deposition of LB layers onto flexible substrates (tape) and onto flat rigid substrates attached to the winded tape; rig for horizontal precipitation allows to deposit monomolecular layers onto submerged substrate according to Langmuir-Schaefer (horizontal precipitation, HP) technique by the liquid level lowering (draining).

LT-310 can be applied for
  • application of monomolecular films on solid samples according to the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique or to the horizontal precipitation (HP) technique
  • deposition of multimolecular films using corresponding layer-by-layer technique
  • formation of mono- and multimolecular composite coatings on solid surfaces
  • modification of the surface properties (hydrophilic behavior, optical, electrical properties etc. )
  • fundamental research in ultrathin film fabrication and their use as insulating and protective coatings, molecular electronic elements, in biology for creation of bilayer lipid membranes etc.
Number of barriers: One
Full free surface area: 855 cm2
Maximum free surface area confined with the barrier: 815 cm2
Compressed (effective) area: 620 cm2
Liquid medium volume: 9600-10900 cm3
Dipping well: not smaller than 250x180x200 mm (w-d-h)
Maximum dimensions of the immersed substrate: 170x170x170 mm (w-d-h)
Travel range of the movable horizontal barrier: 350 mm
Velocity range of the barrier motion: - single side compression 0.01 to 50 mm/min
Dipper mechanism stroke: 86 mm (vertical position of the unit can be adjusted manually)
Dipper mechanism velocity range: 0.0140 mm/min,
Step of the dipper mechanism velocity change: 0.1 mm/min
Possibility of altering different monomolecular layers deposition: Available
Delay between the layers deposition: 0100000 s
Surface tension sensor: based on Wilhelmy plate 15x15 mm (vertical position of the sensor can be adjusted manually)
Working range of the surface tension sensor: 0-80 mN/m (stepped and fine adjustment of the range are available)
Sensitivity of the surface tension sensor: 0.05 mN/m
Number of surface tension sensors: One / Two (two sensors my be used by default)
Doser for substance feed to aqueous surface: - syringe pump: with substance reserve 1 ml (syringes of up to 10 ml applicable), motion range of leading rod 65 mm
- peristaltic pump with flow rate about 0.157 ml per one revolution of motor
Overall dimensions: Trough without mounted rig not bigger than 490x280x260 mm (w-d-h);
Maximum size with installed accessories 660x340x500 mm (w-d-h);
Control unit 200x293x80 mm (w-d-h);
Total weight (with all accessories and control unit) 21 kg
Supply voltage: 240 V / 2.3 A / 50 Hz
Control voltage supplied from control unit to elements of the trough: +5 V; -5 V; +15 V
Power consumption: Average 100 W, peak not more than 500 W (without host PC)
Additional accessories:
  • Substrate clamping holder for fixing a flat sample on the dipper lever.
  • Rig for film application by the horizontal precipitation method (by liquid medium draining)*.
  • A mountable unit for tape substrate winding with set of guides.
  • A syringe pump doser or peristaltic pump to feed substance film on liquid interface.
  • Rotating barrier for substance film transfer into the deposition zone.
  • One draining nozzle at bottom of the dipping well and 3 additional nozzles in shallow area, all nozzles for connecting tube of 5 mm inner diameter.
 Deposition of X-type LB film
 Deposition of Y-type LB film
 Deposition of Z-type LB film
  Horizontal precipitation (HP) method (by liquid medium draining) provides surface modification by extremely uniform and homogenous monolayer films (see, for example this paper). HP method allows transferring of monolayer films at various surfaces simultaneously from huge variety of surfactants (both in solid and liquid state) despite of polar head structure. The process of deposition is simple and fast. In particular, the surface of metallized silicon wafer can be modified by HP method within 3-5 minutes.

  Roll-To-Roll deposition technique engages additional accessories in the set of LB trough LT-310 to deposit monomolecular film on tape (continuous deposition on flexible substrate). In LT-310, extraction angle of the exiting portion of tape may be adjusted in range 30-90o with step 5o
Code Name Q-ty
LT-310-010 LB trough
LT-310-020 Dipper unit (Substrate clamping holder for fast fixing of flat sample on the dipper lever) 1
LT-310-030 Surface pressure sensor 1
LT-310-040 Control electronic unit1 1
RT-01 A peristaltic pump for continuous feeding of the deposited film on the aqueous surface. Ready to be installed directly in the trough side wall. (Includes the case with rotor, stepper motor, silicone hose diam 2/4 mm, clamping rings) 1
DT-03 A microdoser (syringe pump) for feeding the deposited film on the aqueous surface 1
LT-310-060 A mounted unit for the tape substrate winding in set with guides. Two motors drive to wind and rewind the tape. 1
LT-310-050 A rotating barrier for the monomolecular film transfer into working (deposition) area 1
LT-310-030 Additional surface pressure sensor 1
LT-310-070 Rig for film application by the horizontal precipitation method 1
1 Basic set also includes control software (for Win32) and operation manual.

Safety guides for LT-310 trough (pdf, 620 kB)

Examples of LT-310 configurations

* Host PC is not included in the delivery set


Depending on the installed units and accessories, LT-310 apparatus may be configured in such variants (for example)

Conventional LB trough configuration includes horizontal barrier, surface tension sensor and dipper unit.

Configuration of the trough for horizontal precipitation includes horizontal barrier, surface tension sensor and specialized rig two Z-shaped PTFE bars with adjusting screw on one end. Draining hose(s) are employed in the technique. (Silicon wafer is shown as example of substrate placement).

Configuration of the trough for deposition on tape substrate includes horizontal barrier, surface tension sensor and specialized rig for tape winding. In this example, the trough also includes peristaltic pump for automatic feeding of the deposited monolayer. Alternativelly, a syring pump (microdozing unit) may be also involved to automate replenishment of active substance in the liquid interface or operator may do it manually.

The trough configuration for deposition on tape substrate with additional options. It includes specialized rig for tape winding, two surface tension sensors, rotating barrier for precise replenishment of deposited monolayer, and a peristaltic pump for automatic feeding of the active substance to preparatory area. Alternativelly, a syring pump (microdozing unit) may be used instead of peristaltic pump. Default horizontal barrier is not engaded.


Panel of LB trough control software

Software for LB trough control and data acquisition is a Win32 application running under OS Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/Vista.

The software is built according to the modular scheme oriented to perform specific application technique and provides all preliminary settings and calibration necessary for the LB trough operation as well control over the systems (mechanisms of the barrier movement and sample dipping/lifting) at the film application.

Acquired data can be saved in special format or text files and can be then processed, visualized and analysed in the program itself or with third party software (e.g. SurfaceXplorer package or Microsoft Excel).

Minimal configuration of host PC (not included in the delivery set): Celeron® 1.7 GHz, RAM 512 MB, HDD 160 GB, VRAM 64 MB, monitor 1024x768x32 bit, MS Windows® XP SP2, 1 free USB port.

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