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::: LT-2211 :::
An experimental device for deposition of monomolecular films
according to the Langmuir—Blodgett (LB) technique
LB trough
A device for film deposition by
Langmuir—Blodgett technique LT-2211

Langmuir—Blodgett trough LT-2211 is intended for

  • deposition of monomolecular films on solid samples according to the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique or to the horizontal precipitation (HP) technique;
  • experimental optimization of deposition modes of mono- and multimolecular films on solid surfaces;
  • measurements of compression isotherms (the number of surfactants in multicomponent mixtiures is unlimited);
  • fundamental research in ultrathin film fabrication and their use as insulating and protective coatings, molecular electronic elements, in biology for creation of bilayer lipid membranes etc.
LT-2211 trough features compact design allowing placement of the device under microscope or other instruments. The PTFE-trough is changeable and may be easily replaced with the deeper one including version with dipping well to submerge a substrate.
Types of depossited LB-films X-, Z-, Y-types of LB-films. Horizontal precipitation. Manual control for mode combination available.
Number of barriers Two: symmetrical compression, autonomous movement
Dimensions of free surface in the trough 266*100 mm (length*width)
Changeable area in the trough 266 to 90 cm 2
Depth in shallow working area 6 mm in base version, 1.7 mm in alternative version
Dipping well (in base version) depth to 50 mm, width max 84 mm
Liquid medium volume in the trough 390 ml in base version, 45 ml in alternative version
Substrate dimensions (for submerging in the dipping well) up to 50*80*15 mm (height*depth*width)
Compression rate by the barriers 54–210 mm/min
Thermostating paltform Yes. Liquid thermostating by outer facilities in temperature range 0°С...80°C. Nozzles to connect pipes of inner diam. 6 mm
Surface tension sensor (microbalance) FM-02 (on a separate stand, vertical position may be adjusted). Wilhelmy plate 15*15 mm (accuracy ~0.1 mN/m). Working range 0–100 mN/m (may be adjusted). Sensitivity 0.01 mN/m.
Dipper VT-04 (on a separate stand, vertical position may be adjusted). Dipper mechanism stroke 85 mm. Vertical translation rate 0.12–70 mm/min. Step of the dipper mechanism velocity change 0.1 mm/min. The unit may be used separately for submerging a substarte into liquid under control from host PC (programmable).
Delay between consequent layers deposition 0–10000 s
Deposition rate 0.002 to 2 mm/min
Changeable PTFE trough Base dimensions 310*156*10 mm (w*d*h), maximum window size for dipping well 94*100 mm.
Additional accessories
  • Substrate clamping holder for fixing the sample on the dipper lever (substrate thickness up to 4 mm).
  • Rig for film deposition by the horizontal precipitation method (by liquid medium draining).
Applications - Isotherm measurement: uniform or step-wise compression available. The number of surfactants in multicomponent mixtures is unlimited.
- Deposition of multifunctional monomolecular and multilayered films from liquid surafce on solid substrates (the film keeps exact structure at its transferring onto solid surface).
- etc.
Overall dimensions Trough unit – 390*175*110 mm (w*d*h); Control unit – 185*240*105 мм  (w*d*h); Weight 7/9 kg.  Additional accessories are mounted on separate stands.
Supply voltage 220 V 50 Hz
Power consumption not more than 100 W
 Deposition of X-type LB film
 Deposition of Y-type LB film
 Deposition of Z-type LB film
  Note. * Horizontal precipitation (HP) method (by liquid medium draining). [Article]
    The method provides surface modification by extremely uniform and homogenous monolayer films (see, for example this paper). HP method allows transferring of monolayer films at various surfaces simultaneously from huge variety of surfactants (both in solid and liquid state) despite of polar head structure. The process of deposition is simple and fast. In particular, the surface of metallized silicon wafer can be modified by HP method within 3–5 minutes.

1 Basic set akso inckludes control software (for Win32) and operation manual.
Code Name Q-ty
LT-2211-010 LB trough with basic accessories (Substrate clamping holder for fixing the sample on the dipper lever; Rig for film application by the horizontal precipitation method; A base platform featuring liquid thermostating by an external device) 1
LT-2211-040 Control electronic unit1 1
FM-02 Surface pressure sensor 1
VT-04 Dipper unit 1
DT-03 A microdoser for feeding the deposited film on the aqueous surface 1
LT-2211-090 A set of calibrating surfactants: stearic acid, behenic acid, acetyl alcohol. ask
1 Basic set also includes control software (for Win32) and operation manual.

* Host PC is not included in the delivery set


Panel of LB trough control software

Software for LB trough control and data acquisition is a Win32 application running under OS Windows XP/Vista/7/8/10.

The software is built according to the modular scheme oriented to perform specific application technique and provides all preliminary settings and calibration necessary for the LB trough operation as well control over the systems (mechanisms of the barrier movement and sample dipping/lifting) at the film application.

Acquired data can be saved in special format or text files and can be then processed, visualized and analysed in the program itself or with third party software (e.g. SurfaceXplorer package or Microsoft Excel).

Minimal configuration of host PC (not included in the delivery set): Celeron® 1.7 GHz, RAM 512 MB, HDD 160 GB, VRAM 64 MB, monitor 1024x768x32 bit, MS Windows® XP SP2, 1 free USB port.

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